Iran Nuclear Deal May Have its Beginnings in Geneva

by Jasmin Ramsey

via IPS News

Geneva — Talks between Iran and world powers known as the P5+1 over Iran’s nuclear program wrapped up here with expressions of encouragement and hope, a commitment to reconvene in just three weeks, and several welcomed “firsts”.

Officials remained determinedly mum Wednesday about the much sought-after details of the new PowerPoint proposal that Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif presented to the P5+1 (the United States, Britain, France, Russia and China, plus Germany) Tuesday, although one key element of a potential deal — Iran’s eventual willingness to sign the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) — was revealed to IPS earlier in the day.

Hints of a potential deal

“I have never had such intense, detailed, straightforward, candid conversations with the Iranian delegation before,” a senior US administration official told reporters here, confirming that the next talks would take place again in Geneva from Nov. 7-8.

“I would say we are beginning that kind of negotiation to get to a place where, in fact, one can imagine that you could possibly have an agreement,” the official said.

The US official also noted the persistence of “serious differences,” but added, “If there weren’t serious differences, this would have been resolved a long time ago.”

Zarif, who is suffering from extreme back pain, told reporters early Wednesday evening in an English/Persian press conference that Iran had taken part in “substantive and forward-looking negotiations.”

“We sense that the members of the [P5+1] also exhibited the necessary political will in order to move the process forward, and now we have to get to the details,” a wheelchair-ridden Zarif said in English after the final plenary had ended.

Welcome new developments

A closed-door bilateral meeting on Oct. 15 between the lead US representative here, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Wendy Sherman, with Iran’s Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Aragchi was the first such meet to take place between the US and Iran during a full-gauged P5+1 negotiation with Iran since 2009, although the US and Iran made history last month when Secretary of State John Kerry and Zarif met privately for 30 minutes on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly.

“Our discussion bilaterally yesterday was a useful one,” said a senior US official today.

The fact that the talks were conducted in English for the first time was seen as another welcome first.

“The pace of the discussion is much better,” a senior US official told reporters today, adding that it “creates the ability to really have the kind of back-and-forth one must have if you want to have a negotiation.”

Elements of Iran’s proposal

Araghchi, who became Iran’s lead representative in the talks following chief negotiator Zarif’s proposal presentation on Oct. 15, told IPS in the first such English-language interview here that Iran is open to implementing the Additional Protocol as part of a mutually agreed final deal.

“The Additional Protocol is a part of the endgame,” Araghchi told IPS this morning in the lobby of his hotel. “It’s on the table, but not for the time being, it’s a part of the final step,” he said.

The voluntary but advanced nuclear safeguards standard, which Iran would formally ratify with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has long been considered by analysts a key element of any possible deal between Iran and the P5+1 over its controversial nuclear programme.

“The Additional Protocol is the only way that you can make sure there are no clandestine activities inside the country,” Ali Vaez, an Iran expert at the International Crisis Group, told IPS.

“It gives the IAEA access to all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be able to conduct snap inspections with two hours’ notice for declared facilities in Iran and within 24 hours of undeclared facilities,” Vaez said.

According to Iran expert Trita Parsi, Iran started implementing the Protocol in 2003 as part of a negotiation with the so-called EU-3 (Britain, France, and Germany) while under the impression that “objective criteria would be put into place for Iran to have a nuclear enrichment program.”

But the EU-3 failed to follow through, reportedly due in major part to strong objections to such an accord by the administration of President George W. Bush, and Iran stopped adhering to the Protocol in 2006.

“Europe had already achieved what it sought, Iran wasn’t enriching, and the Protocol was implemented,” Parsi told IPS.

“This is part of the reason why the Iranians want the end game to be clarified before,” Parsi explained, adding that the Iranians don’t want to make concessions without clarity of what they will receive in return.

Before insisting that he would not comment on any details of his proposal, Zarif told reporters here today that Iran would not implement the Additional Protocol at this stage, adding “these issues are on the table” and “are being discussed and they will be discussed at various stages of the process.”

“We want to guarantee Iran’s right to nuclear technology and assure the other side of the table that our nuclear programme is peaceful,” Araghchi told reporters in Farsi Tuesday.

“The first step includes rebuilding mutual trust and addressing the concerns of both sides,” he said, adding that the “verification tools” of the IAEA could be utilised during the process.

The final step includes using Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei’s fatwa (a religious ruling) against Iran building or possessing nuclear weapons as “the most important point,” stated Araghchi.

“Iran will use its own nuclear facilities, including its nuclear research reactor, for peaceful purposes,” he noted, adding that the last phase of Tehran’s offer includes “the lifting of all sanctions against Iran.”

Sanctions a key issue

In another first for the P5+1 talks, a “joint statement” issued in the names of both Zarif and EU High Representative Catherine Ashton noted that sanctions specialists would be included in an “experts” meeting before the Nov. 7-8 talks “to address differences and address practical steps.”

In yet another first, top U.S. sanctions officials accompanied Sherman on the delegation this week.

But it remains to be seen what kind — as well as the timing — of sanctions relief the P5+1 is willing to offer Iran as part of a comprehensive agreement that is likely to include interim confidence-building measures (CBMs).

Iran insists on what it refers to as its right to enrich uranium on its own soil as part of its civil nuclear programme. But acknowledging that as part of nuclear deal remains a problem for the U.S. Congress where the Israel lobby exerts its greatest influence.

Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu has been campaigning for weeks against any agreement that does not require Iran to essentially abandon its nuclear programme, including enrichment on its own soil.

An Oct. 11 bipartisan letter sent to U.S. President Barack Obama by ten key senators suggested they were “prepared to move forward with new sanctions to increase pressure on the government in Tehran” in the coming weeks, presumably before the next round of talks in Geneva.

The senior US official who briefed reporters after the meeting said there would be classified briefings with Congress on the talks in the coming days.

“The prerogative in the end is theirs, but I am hopeful that we will continue to be strong partners with the same objective, which I believe we have,” said the official.

The official said briefings will also be given to key allies, including Israel and Saudi Arabia, which are known to be highly sceptical about — if not strongly opposed — to any deal that would permit Iran to continue any enrichment on its own soil.

EU Foreign Policy chief Catherine Ashton talks with Iran’s Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif during nuclear talks in Geneva on Oct. 15

Jasmin Ramsey

Jasmin Ramsey is a journalist based in Washington, DC.



  1. Chomping at the bit, due to not getting their way, Saudi Arabia & Israel. All things considered, the P5+1 pull more power than S.A.& I., not to forget the rest of the population of the M.E. A new direction and a promising start. Good, so far. If the Israeli’s Netanyahoo can be neutralized, along with the bought and paid for members of the U.S. Congress. Ah, but we’re getting ahead of ourselves, though it’s nice to think there is light at the end of the tunnel. We will see what transpires between now and then. Gosh, is it real, that Iran has outmaneuvered the War mongers?

  2. Unfortunately, Tehran’s extensive propaganda campaign, emphasizing “moderation” of its new president Rouhani, seems to be working by softening up US and Europe to lift sanctions. Iran should not be trusted and sanctions should not be lifted. It is well documented that Iran has been systematically violating of the terms of the NPT. Despite Iran’s insistence that its nuclear program is exclusively for peaceful purposes, the evidence shows beyond a reasonable doubt that Iran’s nuclear work is not consistent with any other application than the development of a nuclear weapon. Iran continues to conceal its nuclear program and conduct enrichment-related activities, in violation of the NPT, the IAEA Safeguards Agreement, all subsequent IAEA Safeguards Resolutions, and numerous United Nations Security Council Resolutions. Additionally, as a party to several human rights treaties and as a Member State of the United Nations, Iran is legally obligated to protect the civil, political and religious rights of its citizens. However, since the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Iran has been involved in large-scale abuses of human rights, including systematic persecution of religious minorities and severe restrictions on the freedoms of expression and assembly. Lastly, Iran has also violated numerous UN Security Council Resolutions relating to the state-sponsorship of terrorism by providing training, financial support, and arms shipments to terrorist organizations in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere. This is in clear violation of the Security Council resolutions and poses a serious threat to international security. While Iran is making claims for peace, Iran has done nothing to reverse its old ways. Promising peace does not do any good if you still support a barbarous regime, fund terrorists groups, and work to develop nuclear weapons. Sanctions shouldn’t be lifted simply based on promises, but on concrete action.

  3. To coin a phrase: “There you go again”. You just repeat over & over, yet you fail to look at what is taking place in Israel today concerning the Palestinians and their land. You also don’t speak of Mr. Netanyahoo who keeps changing the goal posts for the peace talks, saying one thing, then changing it to something else, poisoning the outcome before it happens. Also, what about the WMDs that Israel possesses? Have you an answer for those two questions, or are you just reading from a script? If these talks bear fruit, that the sanctions are removed, Iran & the U.S. can resume normal relations, the Iranian citizens can resume/rebuild their economy, then the M.E. can breath easier as well as the rest of the World. There has been too much killing, destruction, that doesn’t add anything to the betterment, especially to the young people who are left with the aftermath to clean up. Do you really embrace the destruction that these wars have produced? Would you trade places?

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